Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Incarceration Of The United States - 908 Words

When the term corrections is mentioned, the thought of incarceration is the first to come to mind. This is the case for as of the end of 2013, there were 1,574,700 people serving time in state and federal penitentiaries (Carson, 2014, p.1). This alarming number gives reason for the need of alternatives to incarceration. Avoiding imprisonment does not translate to a lenient punitive sentence for the alternatives can just as easily repair harms to the victims, provide benefits to the community, treat the drug addicted, and rehabilitate offenders (FAMM, 2013, p.1). The use of programs that offer an alternative to incarceration can reduce the amount of people in the prison system that is living on taxpayers’ dollars. The enlistment in the military is a viable option as an alternative to incarceration. The goal of rehabilitation is a change in the behavior of the convict and the enlistment of said individual offers just that in more ways than one. The sociology theory of the life c ourse roughly translates to that over a course of life, one abandons its old ways of life in order to adopt to a new way of life or a social structure (Shepard, 2013, p.95). In total institutions, where one is completely removed from society such as military boot camps or prisons, the individual’s self-concept begins to facture by the replacement of their personal identities with concepts of shared identities such as wearing uniforms or the use of serial numbers instead of names. Once the self-conceptShow MoreRelatedThe Incarceration Of The United States1519 Words   |  7 Pagesin recent decades, violent crimes in the United States of America have been on a steady decline, however, the number of people in the United States under some form of correctional control is reaching towering heights and reaching record proportions. In the last thirty years, the incarceration rates in the United States has skyrocketed; the numbers roughly quadrupled from around five hundred thousand to more than 2 million people. (NAACP)In a speech on criminal justice at Columbia University, HillaryRead MoreThe Incarceration Of The United States980 Words   |  4 PagesHave you ever questioned about the justice in the United States? Stevenson states that, â€Å"Today we have the highest rate of incarceration in the world. The prison population has increased from 300,000 people in the early 1970s to 2.3 million people today† (15). United States is a modern country that doesn’t serve justice to her citizen? 2.3 million prisoners are just embarrassing the whole country. You might want to know how bad the justice system is and how the heck cause 2.3 million prisoners toRead MoreIncarceration Of The United States Essay2335 Words   |  10 PagesEven though the United States makes up just 5% of the world’s population, it houses 25% of the world’s prison population† (Walmsley, 2009). The United States prides itself in being a worldwide leader in j ust about every category; however, being the world leader in incarceration rights might not be something the United States would be proud about. Incarceration rates in the United States have grown at alarming rates in the past forty years specifically and it has resulted in major overcrowding issuesRead MoreThe Incarceration Of The United States979 Words   |  4 PagesHave you ever question about the justice in the United States? Stevenson states that, â€Å"Today we have the highest rate of incarceration in the world. The prison population has increased from 300,000 people in the early 1970s to 2.3 million people today† (15). Is United States is a modern country that doesn’t serve justice to her citizen? 2.3 million of prisoners are just embarrassing the whole country. You might want to know how bad the justice system is and how the heck cause 2.3 million prisonersRead MoreIncarceration Of The United States1113 Words   |  5 Pages The United States of America has more people incarcerated than any other country on earth, a whopping 2,220,300 adults are currently locked behind bars. We have 500,000 more citizens locked up than China, a country 5 times our population run by an authoritarian government. From 1990 - 2000 the prison population increased by 1,000,000. The main reason for incarceration as a punishment in this country is rehabilitation, or so we have been told. In recent years an industry has developed that revolvesRead MoreThe Incarceration Of The United States1044 Words   |  5 PagesOverview The United States has the highest prison population in the world, with over two million incarcerated (World Prison Brief, 2016), of whom many are juveniles. It is well documented that youths who enter this system are more likely to suffer a host of negative health and lifestyle outcomes, such as alcohol/drug abuse, high school dropout, and mental health problems. Such phenomena occur in stark contrast with the aims of the US juvenile justice system, which supposedly intends to help offendingRead MoreIncarceration Of The United States1957 Words   |  8 Pages Incarceration has been a pending issue amongst western civilization’s history for some time and today continues to raise a wide range of important questions. Incarceration of individuals have become a tremendous tax payer concern along with the incarceration of the drug war, convictions of street gangs, and the rest of the individuals who have broken the law and harmed other innocent individuals. However, the question is always a concern of men incarceration and hardly addressed of women beingRead MoreIncarceration Of The United States3014 Words   |  13 PagesThe United States of America is phrased by many, as being â€Å"the land of the free.† Yet, the Unites States currently has the highest per capita prison population than any other country. The United States makes up only 5% of the world’s population and of that 5%, 25% of our overall nation’s population is currently incarcerated. A few factors that attribute to our high rates of incarceration incl ude, sentencing laws: such as mandatory- minimum sentencing, lack of initial deterrence from crime, the warRead MoreThe Incarceration Of The United States2529 Words   |  11 PagesSince 2002, The United States has had the highest incarceration rate in the world, and many of those imprisoned within the U.S. will be released and rearrested within three years (Langan Levin, 2002). Unfortunately, research has been mixed shown that the time spent in prison does not successfully rehabilitate most inmates, and the majority of criminals return to a life of crime almost immediately. Most experts believe that many prisoners will learn more and better ways to commit crimes while theyRead MoreIncarceration Of The United States1745 Words   |  7 PagesThere are over two million people in the United States behind bars. Incarceration in the US is one of the main forms of punishment that leads nothing after for people when getting out. Every state, city, country, all have laws we citizens obey and go by to do best for our country, but what happens someone violates the law? According to Google’s definition of a felony, it says that felony means, â€Å"a crime, typically one involving violence, regarded as more serious than a misdemeanor, and usually punishable

Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt A Good Idea - 972 Words

Analysis of Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt a Good Idea Many people would love to have their student loans debt forgive but do not believe it will happen. So Kayla Webley decided to write an article about student loan forgiveness, at the time Webley wrote the article she was the education correspondent for Time magazine. Now she is currently a staff writer for the same magazine. In her article, she claims that the student loan dilemma that is facing a lot of Americans is a problem for your country and needs to be addressed, but the current idea for solutions is not feasible and new ideas need to be raised. In her article, she argues against solutions people have put forward and also counter argue the claims they make in their solutions. When talking about student loan forgiveness many arguments can be made and, Webley acknowledges a few of them in her article. She argues that the proposal that Robert Applebaum made about the one-time bailout, that it may come across as a very exp ensive proposition, but it has been done before in your country history, when the government bailout out the banks and automakers, so why not a college graduate. She also, argues that most borrowers can not afford to pay off their student loans and the ones that can do not feel like handing the money over every month. With that being said, she believes that everyone would take the bailout if it was offered to them. Webley as argues that the current model on how higher education in the UnitedShow MoreRelatedIs Forgiving Student Loan Debt A Good Idea?1009 Words   |  5 Pagesnew media, Kayla Webley, in her essay â€Å"Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt a Good Idea?† states Robert Applebaum’s solution for student loan debt is a â€Å"radical and wildly unfeasible solution† in both economically and politically. Applebaum’s proposal is to â€Å"provide a one-time bailout of student debt†¦as a way to stimulate the still-limping economy.† However, W ebley counters the solution has to have â€Å"the purported benefited and fairness of a one-time student loan bailout.† In Webley’s essay, in the sixthRead MoreIs Forgiving Student Loan Debt A Good Idea?1227 Words   |  5 Pagesnew media, Kayla Webley, in her essay â€Å"Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt a Good Idea?† states Robert Applebaum’s solution for student loan debt is a â€Å"radical and wildly unfeasible solution both economically and politically. Applebaum’s proposal is to â€Å"provide a one-time bailout of student debt†¦as a way to stimulate the still-limping economy.† However, Webley counters that the solution has to have â€Å"the purported benefited and fairness of a one-time student loan bailout.† In Webley’s essay, in the sixthRead MoreIs Forgiving Student Loan Debt A Good Idea?970 Words   |  4 PagesMONEY In the article â€Å"Is forgiving student loan debt a good idea† by Kayla Webley, a writer for Time, Webley feels that from a human standpoint forgiving student debt holds some appeal (2). Kayla Webley refers to Robert Applebaum who started a petition in 2009 with a petition of nearly 670,000 signatures. The comments from persons posting the petition are quoted as â€Å"guessing this will never happen but it can’t hurt to sign on† (1). Burdened with an estimated $88,000 in debt, Applebaum’s proposal isRead MoreForgiving Student Loan Debt Essay examples822 Words   |  4 Pagesamount of student loan debt have an effect on the economy? If so would forgiving student loan debt help lower the national debt or would it just increase it? According to Mary Claire Fischer, a writer for Kiplinger’s Personal Finance magazine, â€Å"two-thirds of students who receive bachelor’s degrees leave college with debt in tow† (Fischer). Among these studen ts, the average amount owed is twenty-six thousand dollars (Fischer). There is a six month grace period after graduation to allow the student timeRead MoreStudent Loan Is A Terrible Idea1308 Words   |  6 PagesStudent loan forgiveness is a terrible idea. Sure, in an idealistic world it would be great if the country could forgive all student loan debt and thus bring relief to all students across the nation. Realistic? Not necessarily! Instead of the fairytale notion of student loan forgiveness being the answer to all the problems, America would fair better in taking the initiative in making reforms to the educational loan system that are a bit more realistic. Student loans are a massive predicament in theRead MoreEssay on Student Loan Debt Should be Forgiven1256 Words   |  6 PagesDoes the amount of student loan debt have an effect on the economy? If so would forgiving student loan debt help lower the national debt or would it just increase it? According to Mary Claire Fischer , a writer for Kiplinger’s Personal Finance magazine, â€Å"two-thirds of students who receive bachelor’s degrees leave college with an average debt of twenty-six thousand dollars† (Fischer). This means that the average student debt has doubled since 2007 (Ross 24). The total student loan debt is $1.2 trillionRead MoreStudent Loan Loans Should Not Be Forgiven938 Words   |  4 Pages Should student loan borrowers be forgiven for their debt? The cumulative total of student loan borrowing has already reached $1 trillion dollars already make up more than half of what Barack Obama is pushing to cap the amount any borrower must pay back and forgive outstanding debt after 20 years, even so calling to forgive some or all of the debt that is escalating. Robert Applebaum, the Author behind the Student Loan Forgiveness Act, believes that student loan should be forgiven to highlight anRead MoreIn The Short Essay, â€Å"Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt A Good807 Words   |  4 PagesIn the short essay, â€Å"Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt a Good Idea?† by Kaya Webley, she illustrates through validations that student debt is a problem, but Applebaum’s proposal brings about political and economic problems. One of her validations is that most people can afford their student loans. She also states that only a small handful of graduates leave school with an unbeara ble student debt. Webley touches upon programs that are already in place to help pay off college debt. Another one of her validationsRead MoreShould Student Loan Debt Be Forgiven?1344 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Student Loan Debt: Should We Forgive? EN1123 Most Americans would agree that higher education is important. Compared to years ago, when a high school education was acceptable in most jobs, a college degree is now required in the majority of positions. But what if you can’t afford to get a degree? What then? For many, student loans are the only way to finance one’s education. Paying out of pocket simply isn’t a reality for most, so they rely on state and national government to provide them theRead MoreStudent Loan Debt Has Become A National Problem With No Solution2311 Words   |  10 PagesIntroduction: According to CNN, â€Å"Almost 19% of student loan borrowers owe more than $50,000.Only 6% of borrowers had that much in 2001.† (Gillispe, 1). Why has student loan debt increased so much? Student Loan debt has become a national problem with no solution. Many students are borrowing more money to keep up with the rising cost of tuition in universities, leaving themselves with thousands of debt after graduation. Students after gaining this debt, have to find jobs to support it which can come

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Caddbory Chocolates Company Target Strategy - 1536 Words

Caddbory Chocolates, a company that launched the first store in Melbourne in 2007, is a premier chocolate maker, marketer and Retailer of specialty chocolates around world. By 2016 Caddbory Chocolates has about 22 stores in Melbourne and more than 100 to all over Australia. Their product mix the finest cocoa beans at prices that the customers believe that represent value and price. Industry Overview and Analysis: Caddbory Chocolates primarily operates and competes in the retail gourmet chocolates and hot drinks store industry. This industry experienced a major slowdown in 2009 due to the economic crisis and changing consumer tastes. Before this, the industry had a decade of growth consistent. Even though to the economic slump and†¦show more content†¦In this question we saw how to use industry and competitive analysis to assess the attractiveness of a company s external environment. In this chapter, we discuss how to evaluate a particular company s strategic situation in that environment. Company situation analysis centres on five questions: 1. How well is the present strategy working? 2. What are the company s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats? 3. Is the company competitive on cost? 4. How strong is the company s competitive position? 5. What strategic issues does the company face? To explore these questions, strategists use three analytical techniques: SWOT analysis, strategic cost analysis, and competitive strength assessment. These tools are widely used in strategic analysis because they indicate how strongly a company holds its industry position and whether the present strategy is capable of boosting long-term performance. †¢ HOW WELL IS THE PRESENT STRATEGY WORKING? To evaluate how well a company s present strategy is working, one needs to start with what the strategy is. The first thing to understand is the company s competitive approach-whether it is striving for low-cost leadership, trying to differentiate itself from rivals, or focusing narrowly on specific customer groups and market niches. Another important consideration is the firm s competitive scope within the industry-its degree of vertical integration and geographic market coverage. The company s functional area support

Describe investment terms that are important to mutual fund buyers Essay

Essays on Describe investment terms that are important to mutual fund buyers Essay Describe Investment Terms that are Important to Mutual Fund Buyers Affiliation with more informationabout affiliation, research grants, conflict of interest and how to contact. Describe Investment Terms that are Important to Mutual Fund Buyers. This paper discusses the investment in mutual funds along with a discussion on the case study. Mutual funds are a type of new investment opportunities available to investors today. Mutual fund investments are gaining a growing demand these days because of its cautious nature in which money is handled in the mutual fund markets. â€Å"The single most important benefit of mutual funds is the fact they are a bundle or portfolio of stocks† (Buying Mutual Funds: Part 1, 2004, para 3). Some of the important terms associated with mutual fund investments are 12b-1 fee, annual return, beta value, capital gains, dividends, closed end funds and net asset value (NAV) etc. Investigating the case of the Garners that has been provided for case study, it is understood that both Joe and Mary Garner had not made any investment plan. The lack of any investment plan has affected the savings of the Garners and they are facing a fund tight condition even to go for a vacation, which they had been planning from a short time. The options available for Garners to invest are either in the stock market or in the mutual funds market. Both the stock markets as well as the mutual fund market have advantages and disadvantages. Both the markets have associated risks as well as high returns but the risk in mutual fund market is comparatively very less than the stock market. Therefore it is advised to the Garners family to invest in mutual fund market rather than the stock market. The Garners did not recognize lack of an investment plan as a cause of their financial meltdown until recently. â€Å"Mutual funds and stock market investments are probably the most attractive investment options as they have the potential to yield high rate of returns† (Candid, 2011, para. 1). The total monthly income, which enters the Garner household, is $ 4520. Their monthly expenses were also calculated. In their monthly expense account $ 1385 was a fixed expense, which would be incurred in all the months while $ 920 was a variable expense, which varied from month to month. Therefore, the saving was $ (4520 – 1385 – 920) = $ 2215. Since the month expense of $ 920 was a variable expense, therefore an approximate value of $ 2000 can be invested by the Garners as a part of their investment plan. The best possible option for them since they are very cautious investors is to invest in mutual funds. â€Å"Mutual funds are a lucrative investment, ensure higher returns, better tax benefits and carry minimalist risk† (Why Mutual Funds are Better than Fixed Deposits, 2011, para. 1). Mutual funds offer fixed maturity plans, which are far better than the fixed deposits offered by the banks. Fixed maturity periods could range from 1 year to several years and one of the most important factors is that fixed maturity plans are not invested in equity market. Debt and money market comprises the fixed maturity plans. Only the fluctuation in the NAV needs to be considered in the mutual fund market. Another important benefit is that mutual funds’ fixed maturity plans do not have any taxation condition in comparison t o the fixed deposits in bank, where interests on bank deposits are taxable. The Garner family can put $ 2000 in the fixed maturity plans of the mutual fund scheme in order to increase and develop their investment plans. Reference List Buying Mutual Funds: Part 1, (2004). Money-Zine.com. Retrieved on 25, Dec. 2011. http://www.money-zine.com/Investing/Mutual-Funds/Buying-Mutual-Funds-Part-I/ Candid, S. (2011). Investment Basics: Mutual Funds vs. Stock Market Investments. Hub Pages. Retrieved on 25, Dec. 2011. http://sidcandid.hubpages.com/hub/Investment-Basics-Mutual-Funds-vs-Stock-Market-Investments Why Mutual Funds are Better than Fixed Deposits, (2011). IBNlive.com. Retrieved on 25, Dec. 2011. http://ibnlive.in.com/news/why-mutual-funds-are-better-than-fixed-deposits/45407-16.html

Case Study Environmental Management for Sustainable Development

Question: Case Study on "Environmental Management for Sustainable Development". Answer: Task 1: Understanding the organizational purpose of business 1.0 Introduction The organization chosen in this assignment is Crocodile Garments, which is a Hong-Kong based organization. The organization was founded in the year 1952 and since then, the company is offering quality garment products to its targeted consumers (Crocodile.com 2016). The company has selected the child and female population as their target market. The company operates within the domestic market and apart from that, the company has also targeted international markets by expanding the business activities in Singapore, Japan and Malaysia. 1.1 Identifying the purpose of different types of business There are mainly three types of business organizations in the world of business. These types are sole proprietorship business, partnership business and private and public limited business. In case of the sole proprietorship business, the business is single aim and that is increasing the income level of the owner or proprietor. This type of business is generally of small size and has limited number of stakeholders. On the other side, partnership businesses are those businesses, which are formed by a group of people because of the partnership deal. In the partnership business, every partner has equal responsibility and rights (Kelly and Ashwin 2013). There are mainly two types of partnership business limited partnership and limited liability partnership. In the limited partnership business, the partners, who are the general partners, are liable for all debts in the business (Kelly and Ashwin 2013). On the other side, the limited partners in the limited liability partnership are liable only for the amount that they have invested at the initial point of the business. The main purpose of this business is to enhance the profit percentage of the partners and minimizing the liability of them (Hurt 2015). On the other side, public limited companies are those, which are properly registered under the specific act of the country and issues shares to the public (Garbarski 2015). The shares of the public limited companies are publically traded in the market. For example, the shares of the public limited company in London are traded through London Stock Exchange. However, in case of the private limited companies, the shares are not sold in t he stock markets like, London Stock Exchange or New York Stock Exchange. However, in any kind of limited company whether it is private limited or public limited, the responsibilities of the shareholders towards the financial liability of the company are limited to the value of the shares owned by the shareholders (Hannigan 2015). The primary aim of a public limited company is to enhance the shareholders value, whereas the primary aim of a private limited company is profit maximization (Gov.uk 2016). Apart from that, these companies need to comply with the environmental policies in order to attract the stakeholders especially the investors towards the business model. Additionally, there are different industries operating in the global market for establishing efficient business activities. Every industry conducts social responsibilities in a different manner. It depends on which business activities the organization is performing. The vision of Crocodile Garments is to deliver quality products to the consumers for building a reputation in global market. The purpose of this organization is to meet the increasing needs and demands of global consumers and apart from that, the company is aimed to comply with the environmental policies of different countries in order to maintain business sustainability (Crocodile.com 2016). The most important factor, which the organization wants to achieve, is to build a healthy brand image in global market. 1.2 Approach of the organization for meeting objectives of different stakeholders There are different internal and external stakeholders of Crocodile Garments including consumers, investors, social community and suppliers. In order to conduct sustainable business, the company performs different activities in order to satisfy the stakeholders. The expectation and demands of the stakeholders are different and therefore, it is necessary for the company to identify and fulfill demands of every possible stakeholder. In this manner, it will be easy for the company to maintain business sustainability. Therefore, Crocodile Garments conduct different sustainable activities for addressing demands of these stakeholders. Following is the activities performed by Crocodile Garments for fulfilling expectations of the stakeholders. Consumers: Consumers are the external stakeholders for the organizations and apart from that, consumers are the most important stakeholders and every organization aims to fulfill demands of the consumers. Nowadays, consumers are more attracted towards eco-friendly products rather than the products, which harm environmental quality (Basgze and Tektas 2012). The needs and demands of the consumers are rapidly changing and on the other hand, the demand of the consumers is to avail high quality products at a reasonable price. In order to meet this expectation of consumers, Crocodile Garments is conducting an efficient market research for understanding the requirements of the consumers (Crocodile.com 2016). In this manner, the company can improve the product quality with the changing demand of the consumers. Therefore, it can be said that the approach of Crocodile Garments for fulfilling the demand of the consumers is efficient. Investors: The demand of the investors is to increase profitability from the growth of the company. Most of the business organizations focus on the sustainability report in order to influence the investors. Similarly, Crocodile Garments has taken a proactive approach for conducting different types of social activities for attracting the investors towards the company. Apart from that, the company has adopted an efficient business model in which the investors can be assured in terms of profitability. The company needs to share the business model with the stakeholders through their annual report (Alexandru and Ioan 2013, p.1436). In order to increase organizational profitability, the company is continuously improving the product quality and range for products in order to satisfy the needs of the investors. Social Community: It is the ethical responsibility of any organization to perform such activities, which helps the social community to improve their life-style. Performing activities for the social community helps an organization to build a healthy brand image, which actually helps an organization to maintain business sustainability. In case of Crocodile Garments, the company is performing many social activities such as charity in order to comply with the environmental policies. The company is also concentrating on the 3R that means Reduce, Reuse and Recycling of the products in order to improve the quality of the natural environment and influence the people to conserve the natural environment (Crocodile.com 2016). Suppliers: The demand of the suppliers is to maintain transparency in terms of business activities. In this manner, the company will be able to maintain long-term relationships with the suppliers, which is helpful for maintaining business sustainability. In order to meet objectives of the suppliers, Crocodile Garments has established a healthy relationship with the suppliers in terms of monitory transaction and other business activities. 1.3 Explaining the responsibilities of the organization along with the employed strategies for performing them An organization has huge responsibilities towards the stakeholders. Therefore, different organizations employ different strategies for fulfilling the responsibilities in accordance with the needs and demands of different stakeholders. As mentioned earlier, the major stakeholders of Crocodile Garments are consumers, investors, social community and suppliers. It is the sole responsibility of the organization to fulfill demands of every stakeholder for maintaining business sustainability. For instance, Crocodile Garments needs to improve the product quality in order to satisfy the consumers, which is a responsibility of the company towards the consumers. Apart from that, the company needs to deliver relevant information to the consumers in order to conduct ethical business. On the other hand, investors should have adequate knowledge regarding the business activities of the company. Therefore, Crocodile Garments is solely responsible for maintaining transparency with the investors as wel l. The responsibility towards the social community is to maintain the environmental quality (Garbarski 2015, p.107). In case of the suppliers, the organization is committed to conduct ethical business practices. Following are the strategies of Crocodile Garments for fulfilling responsibilities towards the above-mentioned stakeholders. Consumers: In order to fulfill the responsibilities towards the consumers, Crocodile Garments has developed an effective communication model, which helps the company to evaluate the needs and requirements of consumers. In this manner, consumers can share their needs and wants with the company and apart from that, consumers can provide their positive and negative feedbacks to the specific representative. Therefore, it can be said that the strategy of Crocodile Garments is to get in touch with the consumers for improving the product quality continuously. Investors: Investors need to know about the entire financial background of the organization at a random basis. The strategy adopted by Crocodile Garment for fulfilling this particular requirement is to publish organizational information to their annual report (Crocodile.com 2016). While publishing the organizational information such as cash flow and profitability along with expected profitability, the company is maintaining transparency. Moreover, the information provided by the organization is not manipulative in nature. Social Community: In order to meet the responsibility towards the social community, the company has taken a proactive approach for taking part in charitable activities. The company has conducted many fund collection activities for the rural population of the community they serve (Crocodile.com 2016). Moreover, the company conducts different social campaigns in which the company provides clothes to the poor people of the operating target market. Suppliers: The organization is responsible for maintaining a healthy communication with the suppliers for maintaining a sustainable relationship. Therefore, the company has adopted an effective strategy for building a healthy strategy with the suppliers. It also helps the organization to monitor the activities of the suppliers along with sharing organizational activities with the suppliers. Task 2: Understanding the nature of the natural environment in which the organization operates 2.1 Explaining how economic system attempts to allocate resources in effective manner There are mainly three types of economic systems present in this world market economy, planned economy and mixed economy. Market economy is such an economy, where the decisions related to the use of resources and the prices of goods and the people in the country decide services. On the other side, in case of planned economy, the government of the country takes the decisions related to the use of resources and pricing. The mixed economy is the combination of these two economic systems (Kline 2014, p.70). The resource allocation mechanism in the market economy is driven by the free interactions of the market forces. This indicates that in the market economy, the consumers decide what needs to produce; producers decide how that needs to be produced and the purchasing power of the customers decides for whom to produce (Hossain 2014, p.751). The government decides the resource allocation mechanism in the planned economy by creating a centralized planning. This means, the government decid es what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce. In case of the mixed economy system, the resource allocation is determined by the demand and supply of the market forces. In UK, the economic system is of free market economy, where the consumers decide what to produce, companies take the decision regarding how to produce and the purchasing power of the consumer decides whom to produce (Dosi et al. 2015). Now, if there is inflation in the economy, then the money supply in the economy will grow up and due to that the expense level of the consumer will rise and the companies will be able to employment more people. The economic system will influence the companies to allocate resource that is more human. On the other side, the companies in the economy will be able to pay minimum wage to each of the employees. 2.2 Assessing the impact of monetary and fiscal policy on Crocodile Garments and its activities The monetary and the fiscal policy of a country have several effects on the business of an organization. In case of the business of Crocodile Garments, the business of the company can be affected and its activities can be changed due to the changes in the fiscal and monetary policies of the government of the country (Rey 2015). The effects are shown below: Fiscal Policies and its Impact Increasing VAT (Value Added Tax): Value Added Tax or VAT is a consumption tax that is applied on a product or service at the time when the value is added to the product or service at the production as well as final stage. If the government of UK increases the rate of VAT, the indirect cost of the company will increase because the maintenance cost or accounting cost of the company will grow up (Dosi et al. 2015). However, the impact of VAT is more on consumers than the company. If the rate of VAT increases, then the prices of the products will also increase because it is an indirect tax that the consumer requires to pay while purchasing the product. Due to this, the company will require to change the price level of the products (Craig and Campbell 2012). Increasing Income Tax If the government of UK increases the rate of income tax, then the cost of the Crocodile Garments will grow up because the company will require paying more taxes on its PBT. This will actually de-motivate the company growing the income level (Rey 2015). However, the company can manage the income tax through proper tax planning. Monetary policies and impacts Reducing interest rate In case of Crocodile Garments, this monitory policy will help the company to borrow high amount at low cost. Therefore, the spending of the organization will also increase for this activity. Increasing Money Supply The monetary policy in a country aims to influence the consumer spending and aggregate demand in the market by using the interest rates and the different monetary tools. In case of UK governments monetary policy, the aim is to keep the inflation rate in the economy within the target of CPI 2% +/- 1. Now if the money supply in the UK economy is increased due to the monetary policy, then the aggregate demand in the market will also grow up and this will increase the revenue of the Crocodile Garments (Legislation.gov.uk 2016). The company will increase the production. At the same time, due to the increased money supply in the market, the company will be able to employ more employees. As the interest rates will be low due to the increased money supply in the market, the total costs of Crocodile Garments will decrease and the investment opportunities will increase. 2.3 Evaluating the impact of competition policy and other regulatory mechanism on the activities on Crocodile Garments Competition policy helps the organizations to gain competitive advantage and this policy helps the business organizations to conduct fair trade in the domestic and international market. This policy prevents collusion among the firms and therefore, power can be distributed among the firms equally. In other words, competition policy helps to prevent one organization to gain excessive market power. Moreover, the aim of the government is to prevent business monopoly, which is indirectly improving the overall economy of the country. The competition policy of UK government has been stated under the Competition Act 1998 (Legislation.gov.uk 2016). This act aims to investigate about the suspected abuses of the monopoly businesses in order to protect the interests of the customers. Due to the competition policies of UK government, the management at Crocodile Garments is bound to maintain the price level about the cost because the Competition Act 1998 restricts the selling of products below the cost level (Legislation.gov.uk 2016). Similarly, the firm cannot set the price at much high level because if the firm does this, then the Competition Act 1998 will consider that pricing as the abuse of monopoly power. At the same time, the management at Crocodile Garments cannot deal with the suppliers at very low price because that will be again considered as the use of power (Legislation.gov.uk 2016). On the other side, the Employment Rights Act 1996 in UK states about all the rights of the employees and employers in the business organizations in UK (Legislation.gov.uk 2016). Therefore, the management at Crocodile Garments is bound to set their activities in such a way so that every employee can have equal rights. No discrimination is done based on gender, race or religion. Task 3: Understanding the behavior of Crocodile Garments in the market environment 3.1 Explaining how the market structure determine the pricing and output decision of business There are several types of market structure available in the economies of different countries. Mainly four types of markets can be noticed in different countries as well as in UK and these are perfectly competitive market, monopoly market, monopolistic market and oligopoly market. A market can be considered as a perfectly competitive market, when there are many buyers and sellers, every seller has similar right to sale the products, and there is no entry or exit barrier in the perfectly competitive market. In this type of market, the sellers have no control over the prices of the products (Mirman, Salgueiro and Santugini 2015). As there are numbers of seller in the market with equal rights and the buyers have all the information about the market, no one can influence the price and output level in the market. The market forces set the output decision. On the other side, in a monopoly market, there is only one seller and there are many buyers in the market. Due to this, the seller has all the power to take the decision regarding the price and output level. If the seller notices that there is high demand in the market, the seller can increase the price level without increasing the output much (Andersen and Vetter 2015). On the other side, the seller can also increase the output level by keeping the price at same level. In case of monopolistic market, there are many producers or sellers and many buyers. However, the products of every seller are different from each other. In this type of market structure, the output level is set as per the level of competition in the market (Nikaido 2015). For example, if the Crocodile Garments operates its business in the monopolistic market and one competitor of Crocodile garment increases the output level and decreases the price level in order to compete at the higher level, the Crocodile Garments will also increase the output level and decrease the price level so that it does not lose the existing customers. Oligopoly market is that market, where there are few producers or sellers and they dominate the market. There are many buyers in the oligopoly market and the products are differentiated or homogeneous. In this type of market, the output level is determined by the level of production of each of the seller or producer in the market (Geras' kin and Chkhartishvili 2015). 3.2 Illustrating the way in which market forces shape organizational responses There are several factors, which are known as the primary market forces for a business organization and these are demand and supply in the market, the price level, the inflation rate and recession level (Worthington and Britton 2009). These market forces can affect the activities of the business organizations in several ways (McDonald 2012). For example, if there is high demand for the fashionable mens shirt in the market of UK, then the Crocodile Garments can easily enhance their production and at the same time can increase the price level of the products. Similarly, if the price level of the products of the competitors is low, then the management at Crocodile Garments is bound to maintain the price of the products at low level (Minford et al. 2015). If there is recession in the economy, then the company requires increasing the prices of the products in order to recover the cost of the manufacturing (Li and Liu 2013, p.1402). The garments industry or market is a type of oligopoly market, where few firms operate their business and dominate the market and each of the firms are interdependent and highly influenced by the market forces. The firms in the garment industry are highly influenced by the demand or tastes and preferences of the customers in the market (Kelly and Ashwin 2013). At the same time, they are interdependent on each other (Geras' kin and Chkhartishvili 2015). For example, there is high demand for the cotton shirts in the market in UK and Crocodile Garments is able to sale the cotton shirts at a moderate price level. Now, as there is high demand for the cotton shirts, the competitors of Crocodile Garments will also produce the cotton shirts and as Crocodile Garments is selling the cotton shirts at moderate price level, the competitors will not be able to charge high price for the cotton shirts (Chakravarty 2016). Therefore, it is clear that the competitors of the Crocodile Garments are depen dent on it in case of setting the price level of the products. On the other side, if there is inflation in the market and one of the competitors of Crocodile Garments increases the prices of the products in order to cover the cost, the Crocodile Garments will also increase the price level. 3.3 Judging the way in which business and cultural environment shape the behavior of Crocodile Garments The behavior of a business organization like, Crocodile Garments is highly influenced by the business and cultural environments. In order to identify the effects of business and cultural environments in shaping the behavior of the Crocodile Garments, it is important to analyze the business and cultural environments of the business with the help of PESTLE framework. The analysis is stated below: Political: The political environment in UK is much favorable for the business organizations like, Crocodile. The low interest and tax rates charged by the government of UK have influenced the management of Crocodile Garments paying all interests and taxes properly. These policies of the government have influenced the company rejecting any kind of tax avoidance and fraudulence in the business (Serra, Pointon and Abdou 2012). At the same time, the government of UK has mandated the transparency in the business, which has also influenced the Crocodile Garments behave in a transparent manner. Economic: The current situation of UKs economy is much stable than five years back. However, after the Brexit, the value of pound has decreased and it has affected not only the economy of the country but also the financial positions of the business organizations. However, this type of situation has influenced the business like, Crocodile Garments performing in a better way. The company has influenced to invest more for further development of the business (Hammer et al. 2015). At the same time, as the economic condition is not much sound, the business has concentrated on maintaining the transparency so that the foreign investors get attracted towards the investment at Crocodile Garments. Social: The people in different communities in UK are much fashionable and very adaptive in nature. The culture of the people in the society is mixed culture, which has influenced the management at Crocodile Garments implementing the cross-cultural business management system within the organization. As the people in the society are very conscious about their rights and thoughts, the organization has taken special care of the employees rights and valued the views of the employees (Shen 2014). At the same time, the organization has also taken care of the quality of the products because the people in the society are also very specific about their social classes. Technological: UK is much advanced in technology. The advanced technological environment has helped the organization handling the situations when there is scarcity of raw materials. With the help of advanced technology, the company is able to manufacture the products with the help of substitute raw materials (Fletcher 2013). Moreover, the advanced technology in UK has influenced the garments manufacturer like Crocodile Garments changing the fashion of the people. Legal: In UK, every organization is bound to maintain certain legal guidelines like, Employment Rights Act, 1996, National Minimum Wage Act 1998, Health, and Safety at Work Act 1974. All of these legal guidelines have influenced the organization maintaining a proper working environment at the workplace and providing proper remuneration and safety to the employees (Hammer et al. 2015). Environmental: The people as well as the government in UK are very conscious about the natural environment of the country. The Climate Change Act 2008 has influenced the management at Crocodile Garments maintain the sustainability of the natural environment while operating the business activities (Shen 2014). Task 4: Assessing the significance of the global factors that shape national business activities 4.1 Discussing the significance of international trade to UK business organization In case of the UK business environment, the service-based organizations are highly influenced by the development of global economic. On the other hand, the UK market is full of service-based organizations operating in the overseas market for taking advantage from the global economy. International tread is one of the most important to UK organizations, as it helps the organizations to gain superiority in competitive market. Globalization is the major reason for which UK organizations are expanding in international market. Following are the benefits of international trade. Advantage of new market segment: An international expansion allows the organizations to develop new market segments by targeting new consumers. In this manner, the organization can increase production as well as the profitability at the same time (Li and Liu 2013, p.1402). Moreover, a new market segment helps an organization to introduce new product design for influencing needs and demands of the newly retained consumers. Overcome stagnancy of domestic market: If the domestic market environment is saturated in terms of market competition and viability, then it can influence an organization to expand business in international market. In case of the UK market, the business possibilities are very high. However, the market is stagnant in terms of demand of domestic products. Therefore, it influences the organizations of UK to expand business in international market rather than being limited to the domestic market. Product or Service diversification: The nature of business is one of the major factors, which influences an organization to go beyond the national borders. More significantly, it is important to build a global essence for some products to be accepted by the consumers. For example, if an organization is providing telecommunication service in the UK market, then it is necessary to be a multinational corporation for gaining trust of the consumers. On the other hand, introducting new service packages along with products would help the company to expand in international market in an effective manner. Specialized products: There are some products, which are specialized and it is not possible to exploit the profitability in the domestic market. In order to gain opportunity of large market, it becomes important for the UK based organizations to expand their business in international market. Contribution of international trade to the GDP of UK: As per the latest national statistics in UK, the international trade has contributed 30% to 32% of the total GDP of the country. However, the national statistics have also disclosed that in the last year, the country had trade deficit of 36.6 billion from the trade of goods and services. In 2015, the exports of the company fell by 2.3 billion (Ons.gov.uk 2016). The fall in the trade of goods was 8.2 billion, which was offset by the increase in the export of services of 5.9 billion (Ons.gov.uk 2016). However, as there are several future opportunities in the emerging markets, it can be expected that in future the country will achieve trade surplus. 4.2 Analyzing the impact of global factors on UK business organization The term international business refers to the organization expansion across the national borders. In this kind of business expansion, the organizations can increase consumer base along with organizational profitability and global essence. In this era of business environment, every organization focuses on business expansion in the international market. In case of the UK based organizations, the aim of the organizations is mostly to export products in the overseas market for increasing profitability. Several factors influence the UK-based organizations to expand in the international market. PESTEL is an effective framework for evaluating the external market forces in business (Wetherly and Otter 2011, p.351). Following are certain factors, which influences organizations in the UK market to expand in the international market. Political factors: International business expansion depends on the political stability of the targeted country, which is a global factor (Al Khattab et al. 2012, p.169). If the political background of a country is unstable, it will be obvious that the business policies of that country will be unstable. Therefore, political instability of a country can affect international expansion of CG negatively. Economic Factors: Global business is directly associated with the global economy. This factor affects the buying power of the buyers along with the market demand of products and services. Most of the UK business organizations are operating their businesses in developing countries. On the other hand, economical recession, inflation and other economical crisis reduce the product demands of the UK organizations (Grigorescu and Badea 2013, p.65). Therefore, it can be said that economic stability of the country has effect on overseas tread of CG. Social Issues: The social trend is evolving rapidly and therefore, needs and expectations of the consumers are changing. However, in this changing trend of consumers buying behavior, UK based organizations are conducting efficient consumer evaluation in order to maintain business sustainability. In case of the UK market, most of the population is aged and therefore, organizations are paying extra cost for the retired employees. On the other hand, the demand of fast moving goods is lower than the demand of medicines and accommodation. In case of CG, the business development of the company can be effected by the changing social trends. Technological Factors: The technological factors are one of the most important factors, which affect the growth and development of an organization. The UK business environment is highly innovative in terms of technological aspects. Since 2010, the use of social media increased among the aged groups as well (Ayres 2013, p.1541). Therefore, it can be said that technological innovation is what organizations are opting in order to promote their offerings (Micheli et al. 2012, p.51). It helps the business organizations to attract consumers from competitive market. Therefore, CG needs to response quickly in order to adopt innovative technology in order to increase customer retention in international market. Environmental Protection: An organization needs to comply with the environmental policies in order to maintain business sustainability. UK organizations use the support of media in order to promote their sustainable practices with the stakeholders. However, the UK media can conduct negative publicity of an organization, which affects business growth and development negatively (Economicshelp.org 2016). In order to conduct sustainable business, CG needs to conduct corporate social responsibilities in an efficient manner. Legal Factors: In order to maintain business sustainability, an organization should comply with the changing legal frameworks. Currently, the UK government has implemented different legal frameworks for the domestic and international businesses such as minimum wages and recirculation policy (gov.uk 2016). Not complying with the legal frameworks will affects business development of CG negatively. Apart from the above mentioned factors, there are many other factors, which have affected the business organizations in UK. One of those factors is the international trade. At the current scenario, the percentage of import is higher than the percentage of export in UK. Most of the large business organizations in UK are importing the labor from the countries like, China and India in order to achieve the competitive advantage (Economicshelp.org 2016). This indicates that the international trade is helping the UK business organizations achieving the competitive advantage in the market. If the business organizations achieve the competitive advantage due to international trade, then their profit level also grows up, which influence the positive contribution towards the economy of the country. On the other side, several market opportunities have high impact on the business organizations in UK. One of them is the lowest corporate tax rate. In this current scenario, the corporate tax rate on the profit is 20% for the companies, which earn yearly profit of 300000 or less than that and 21% for the companies, which earn yearly profit above 300000, whereas in USA, the corporate tax rate is 39.1% and in Australia it is 30% (Economicshelp.org 2016). This lowest corporate tax influences the business organizations developing their business in UK economy. The annual growth rate of UK economy also influences the business organizations. The annual growth rate of UK economy is 2.7% and it is Europes the second healthiest economy after Germany. Due to the high economic growth, the business organizations in UK are getting more opportunities for business expansion because the amount of investment has increased in the business organizations in UK. The current investment statistics of Europe has disclosed that 80% of the total FDI investment has been done in the businesses in UK (Ealbusiness.co.uk 2016). The World Trade Organization has also contributed towards the growth of the UKs business organizations. The deal with the WTO in December 2013 has provided great business opportunities to the small business organizations in UK. This particular deal has provided the scope of starting 100000 new small businesses in UK, which have contributed 30 billion to the UK economy (Wto.org 2016). There is another factor that has high impact on the business organizations in UK and that is the emerging market opportunities. In a survey in recent past that is in 2012, it has been identified that 83% of the UK business organizations are looking to the emerging markets in the developing country for business growth. The business organizations in UK are mostly interested to invest in the emerging markets of India, China, France, Singapore, USA and Germany (Mizudesign.com M 2016). Protectionism has also impact on the development of the business organizations in UK. The government of UK has realized that if there is more protectionism, there is less scope for import and exports or international trade. Due to this, the government of the country has implemented fewer tariffs and other barriers for international business, which has helped the organizations in further business development (Mizudesign.com 2016). 4.3 Evaluating the impact of policies of the European Union on UK business organizations European Union Policies affects the business activities of CG (Crocodile Garments) in an effective manner. Following are the EU policies and its impact on the CGs business development and the overall UK economy. Employment policy: Government of UK has implemented employment policy in which CG should provide training to the employees in order to improve organizational efficiency. However, a certain economic recession would force the employees to accept low wages (Bolton, Laaser and Mcguire 2016, p.589). On the other hand, government has implemented different training programs for increasing employment. It affects the business environment of CG positively and therefore, the CG can conduct sustainable business on domestic and international market. Inflation policy: The European Union (EU) has implemented this policy for handling instable economical situation. In order to handle such situations, the government increases the interest rate and therefore, cost of product price goes high (Euintheus.org 2016). In this particular market situation, spending of people reduces and therefore, product demand of CG may reduce. Taxation Policy: The government has implemented this policy for helping the organization in contributing to the social community. Apart from that, following this particular policy, government can also contribute in organizational development of domestic and international organizations. Therefore, it can be said that this policy of EU helps CG to maintain business sustainability. 5.0 Conclusion While concluding, it can be said that todays organizations are implementing consumer centric strategies for satisfying different types of stakeholders. Apart from consumers, investors, social community and suppliers are the stakeholders of an organization. Strategies of an organization depend on the business process and external environment. This paper shows how different types of organizations used to stay connected with their stakeholders. Reference list and bibliography Al Khattab, A., Aldehayyat, J., Alrawad, M., Al-Yatama, S. and Al Khattab, S. 2012, "Executives' perception of political-legal business environment in international projects", International Journal of Commerce and Management,vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 168-181. Alexandru, B. and Ioan, P. 2013, "COMMUNICATION STRATEGY ABOUT BUSINESS MODELS: STAKEHOLDERS PERSPECTIVE",Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science,vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1434-1442. Andersen, P. and Vetter, H., 2015. Pricing as a risky choice: Uncertainty and survival in a monopoly market.Economics,9(29), p.1. Ayres, E.J. 2013, "The impact of social media on business and ethical practices in dietetics",Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,vol. 113, no. 11, pp. 1539-1543. Bain, P.L. and Nowak, K., 2015. Sole Proprietorships.NY Practice Guide: Business and Commercial. Basgze, P. and Tektas, .. 2012, "Ethical Perceptions and Green Buying Behavior of Consumers: A Cross-National Exploratory Study",Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies,vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 477. Bolton, S., Laaser, K. and Mcguire, D. 2016, "Quality Work and the Moral Economy of European Employment Policy",JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies,vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 583-598. Chakravarty, S., 2016, July. 11 Market Forces and. InMarket Forces in Planned Economies: Proceedings of a Conference held by the International Economic Association in Moscow, USSR(p. 229). Springer. iflikli, C. and Kahya-zyirmidokuz, E. 2012, "Enhancing product quality of a process",Industrial Management Data Systems,vol. 112, no. 8, pp. 1181-1200 Corona, C. and Nan, L. 2013, "Preannouncing competitive decisions in oligopoly markets",The Journal of Accounting and Economics,vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 73-90. Craig, T. and Campbell, D., 2012.Organisations and the business environment. Routledge.

Notes on the metamorphosis Essay Example For Students

Notes on the metamorphosis Essay Summary Gregor Samsa awakes one morning to find that he has been inexplicably transformed into a giant insect. He has also slept late. His parents and his sister Grete try to rouse him so he can make it to his dreary job as a traveling salesman. The family depends on him for its livelihood. Gregor, however, is now a bug. When a clerk from his company comes to demand an explanation for his absence, Gregor makes a great effort to open the bedroom door and show himself. This sends the terrified clerk tearing down the stairwell and Gregors family into shock. Grete, more than his father or mother, handles the situation practically. Gregor is fed, and his room is cleaned. Before long, however, economic reality requires all three to find work, and less attention is paid to Gregorexcept when he gets out of his room. No one in the family is fully able to reconcile him- or herself to the insect Gregor, and Gregor is unable to express himself to his family. The fear and disgust his presence inspires (the irrational fear of the mammoth cockroach) is a detriment to his mothers health and incites his father to brief fits of violence. One such fit, a bombardment of fruit, deals Gregor a deep and crippling wound. Hobbled and neglected, Gregor begins to waste away in his room. The family takes in three carping lodgers, using Gregors room to store excess furniture and other miscellaneaadding insult to injury. Yet the family does leave Gregors door slightly open in the evenings, so that he may take part in the household in a small way. One evening, the lodgers hear Grete practicing her violin. They call her into the parlor for a concert. She obliges, and the music so moves Gregor that he creeps out into the parlor towards her, wanting to convey that he understands her gift and will help it to blossom. The lodgers see Gregor and immediately give notice. This is the breaking point for the family. Grete declares that they must abandon the notion that this hideous bug is their dear Gregor. All sadly agree. Gregor slinks back into his room. He dies that night. A great weight has been lifted from the family. After a moment of mourning, the father demands that the lodgers leave immediately. The family takes a trolley out of the city and into the countryside. It is a beautiful, sunny day, and as Grete stretches out her limbs in the trolley car, her parents thoughts turn to finding her a husband. Commentary As some commentators have noted, The Metamorphosis begins with what should be its climax. The protagonists great transformation, often the pivotal moment in a work of fiction, gets plopped unceremoniously on our lap in the storys first sentence. No buildup, no tension, just boom: Gregor Samsa is now a bug, and we must all deal with the consequences of this fact. The remainder of the story marks his ineluctable drift into oblivion, with very few surprises along the way. But no other surprises are necessary. That first simple, declarative sentence and the clear prose that follows it have unleashed a truly staggering torrent of criticism. To attempt to wade through the secondary literature is more than likely to drown in it. The interpretations seem endless, and endlessly possible (if variously plausible). The psychoanalysts, the Marxists, the Symbolists, the New Critics, the biographersall have thrown their well-worn hats into the ring. The ability of the story to support so many divergent formulations of its meaning is clearly one of The Metamorphosiss most salient features. .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc , .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .postImageUrl , .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc , .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc:hover , .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc:visited , .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc:active { border:0!important; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc:active , .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u577a198988e76ebd168e1ab8f88456bc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Transformation of our Society Since the Internet: Online Dating EssaySome hold Gregors transformation to be symbolic, which is to say that his metamorphosis into an insect is a symbolic, not actual, event. It may symbolize the empty, insignificant, and outcast life that Gregor leads as a traveling sales lackey. Or perhaps it symbolizes the degraded nature of modern existence in general, or bourgeois life in particular, or merely Gregors failure in the business world. Or Kafkas low opinion of himself as imagined through his fathers eyes. A Freudian reader can find many a symbol throughout and, with the wave of a magic cigar, trace each back to Kafkas subconscious, and eventually to his strained .

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Why are marriage rates declining Essay Example

Why are marriage rates declining Essay Introduction: For my sociology project I am going to look at marriage and find out the different reasons for its downfall over the past few years.My aim is to find out why marriage is declining.The different things I am going to look at are Divorce Rates Cohabitation Changes in womens roles; Decline in religious beliefsDivorce Rates: Divorce rates have increased over the past years. There are many reasons that people may decide to divorce. The different reasons are; Changes in the attitudes towards marriage; Legal changes; High expectations of a marriageDivorce has never been accepted in religion, but recently as it is becoming more and more popular, religious people are accepting it as a fact of life.Cohabitation: Cohabitation is when two people live together, but arent legally married. Many people cohabite as it is a sort of trial for real married life. Most cohabiting couples end up getting married. Some say that marriage is becoming less fashionable and that cohabitation is a goo d alternative.Chester argues that cohabitation is just a phase. Some cohabiting couples also have children, out side a marriage. Up to 30% of births are outside marriage.Before cohabitation was seen as a deviant thing, but as time went on it became more and more socially accepted. Many people say that there are many disadvantages to cohabitation they are: Living together before marriage increases the risk of divorce. One study found an increased risk of 46%. Living together outside marriage increases the risk of domestic violence for women and the risk of physical and sexual abuse for children. One study found that the risk of domestic violence for women in cohabiting relationships was double that in married relationships; the risk is even greater for child abuse. Unmarried couples have lower levels of happiness and well-being than married couples.Young couples prefer to cohabitate because if things dont work out they dont have to seek legal or religious permission to dissolve their union.Changes in womens roles: three quarters of divorces are started by wives, which means that women are becoming more economically independent, and they dont always rely on their spouse, as they are sometimes the breadwinners of the household. Womens expectations from the marriage are also increasing. Goode argues that historically marriage, was not based on love but was for economic support, with lower expectations regarding companionship. Nowadays marriage is expected to provide both economic support and love and care. Parsons said that women look for emotional support from their marriage, which isnt found in the broader society.As women are becoming more successful, getting married could mean the end of their careers. And many women dont want to get into a relationship/marriage if it puts a strain on their careers. Another aspect of marriage that may put women off marriage is that having children is a part of it, and some women just arent ready fro that commitment.Decline in religious beliefs: the influence of religion on people is declining, and many question the purpose of a religious ceremony to tie their marriage, when they have no belief in it. All religions say that marriage is important, many religions emphasis marriage as a key aspect of life. But as religious beliefs are going down so are the marriage rates.I believe that the two reasons that marriage rates are declining are due: Divorce Changes in womens rolesI think that many marriages are ending in divorce; one in two marriages end in divorce. Therefore not many people want to get married any more. Over the years there has been a great increase in the number of divorces. Goode argues that the change in attitudes towards divorce is part of the more general process of secularisation. Secularisation refers to the declining influence of the church and of religious belief. DIVORCE is a legal dissolution of marriage. People who divorced were seen as deviant, as it was against the norms of society, but now it has become accepted. Since 1971, marriages have fallen by one-fifth and divorces have doubled. Divorce rates increased tremendously, after the law was changed, which made it easier to obtain a divorce. The changes in the law lead up to a sudden rise in divorce. In 1969 the law changed again, this meant that a divorce could have been obtained due to Irretrievable breakdown of marriage.In Britain the divorce law has changed very slowly:; 1534- Divorce allowed only by Act of Parliament; 1837-Divorce allowed only on grounds of adultery; 1937-Divorce allowed on the grounds of adultery, desertion, cruelty and insanity; 1969-Divorce allowed on the grounds of irretrievable breakdown of marriageThe different reasons suggested why people get divorced are:; They married too young; They married for the sake of the child who was on the way; They fell out of love with their partner (and in love with someone else); They just drifted apart; Mother in law got in the wayMarriage is essent ially a coming together, a sharing, a fighting of problem together, a vital communication between two people- and when this communication breakdown so does the marriage.Although many people blame the law for the increase in divorce rates, people have to remember that the law reflects the publics opinions. Divorce is more common amongst certain social classes than others. There are higher divorce rates in the working and lower -middle class. Statistics say that divorce is more common among young partners.Another reason that marriages are declining is due to the changes in womens roles in society: now that women are becoming more and more independent there is no need for them to get married. Women are becoming increasingly economically dependant. Women start off three-quarters of divorces, which may suggest that they dont rely on their partners for financial support any more.There are many different types of ways to collect information. To find out information for the whole of Britain a sociologist would take a small sample of people who could represent the whole of Britain. A sample of people is to make a general statement for a wide number of people in sampling a small representative group of people are selected from the population.Primary DataPrimary data is information that is done by the researchers. The main way in which sociologists may do this is by: Questionnaires Interviews (formal/informal) ObservationQuestionnairesQuestionnaires are sets of questions, which the sociologists hands out to their sample of people. There are two different types of questions that can either have open or closed answers. Open-ended questions are questions where the person filling out the questionnaire writes down their own answer. Closed-ended questions are where the person ticks the appropriate box.The advantages of questionnaires are that they are fairly quick to do, they can be posted to a wide number of people, and people are more likely to answer any embarrassing questi ons. It is also easier to analyse the questionnaires once they have been filled out.The disadvantages are that they can not be used for complicated issues, the researcher can not be sure who has filled out the questionnaire, they can not be sure whether or not the person has filled out the questionnaire honestly, and many people can not be bothered to give the questionnaire back to the researcher. Most of the questions in my questionnaire are closed ended questions where the respondent can chose from a list of possible answers.InterviewsInterviews can be structured or unstructured.Structured interview- a structured interview is when all the questions you want to ask the person you are interviewing are written down, and you being the interviewer follow the questions. A structured interview is good for simple issues.Unstructured interview- this is when the interviewer, asks questions which then lead onto other topics. This form of interviewing is more like a conversation with the per son. Unstructured interviews are good for in-depth subjects.The advantages of a interview is that they can be used with complex issues, people are more likely to respond to your question.The disadvantages are that the interviewer may influence, the reply the respondent, this is called Interviewer bias.For my research I used structured interviews, this was so that detailed answers could be given.Secondary DataThis is useful information that is gathered by another researcher. This data may come from: Mass Media Official Statistics Historical Documents Expressive documentsMass MediaThis data can be very useful, the researcher does a content analysis on anything that is relevant to their topic. This can be adverts, newspapers, magazines etc.For my research I am going to use questionnaires, I have chosen questionnaires as they can be handed out to a wide number of people and I can get a wide sample. From these questionnaires I can also draw graphs related to my evidence. In my questionna ire I have mainly used closed questions, but I have also added in some open-ended questions, so that the people who fill the out can add in their personal views.Instead of using questionnaires I could have just used interviews, as marriage and divorce are very delicate subjects. I decided to use both, as it is easier for me to analyse the data. From analysing the data I can then draw up graphs to present the information I found out.For my research I am going to use questionnaires and interviews.I decided to use a questionnaire as I can look at a wider sample of people. My sample is 35 people; I gave my questionnaires out to both males and females so that I could get a view of all sexes. I gave my questionnaire out to a wide range of different age groups e.g. teachers, (25-40) and pupils (12-18). I also did 5 interviews with married people and questioned them on their views on divorce and cohabitation. My interview was a structured interview; so that I can the person I interviewed ca n answer the questions that are relevant to my course work, instead of them going to into conversations, which are not relevant to my coursework. With my questionnaire I did a pilot study on a small sample of people, to see if any changes need to take place.After handing out my pilot questionnaire I decided that the following changes needed to be made: The questions needed to be lettered That one of the questions needed to re-worded. From doing a pilot study I could alter my questionnaire making it easier to understand. Some of the problems my questionnaire faced was that not everyone answered all of my questions others did not return the questionnaire.A part from doing questionnaires and interviews I am going to be using magazines and newspapers to find facts about divorce and marriage rates. All of the articles that I find will be secondary data. This data can be useful to find out statistics about divorce rates and marriage as a whole.Data found from a magazine or newspapers can be biased as it may have been written to prove a point to people. The data can also go out of date very quickly making it less reliable.For my interview I am going to ask the following questions to my interviewee. Why do you think that women are choosing their careers instead of getting married? Do you think that cohabitation is better than getting married? And why? What do you think the main reason for increasing divorce rates are?I am going to ask the above questions to married people so that I can get their views on the topic.The first person that I interviewed was my Tony Williams- my next-door neighbour. Age 47. Tony was married for 13 tears, and then he had a divorce. He is now cohabiting with his new partner. Why do you think that women are choosing their careers instead of getting married? I think that women enjoy going to work. It is a break from the typical role of the women. I dont really think that women rather get a career than get married. I think that women would like to get married and have a career.; His views on cohabitation were: I think that cohabitation is better than being married, when being married there are many different issues that crop up that you dont really know how to handle. All of these problems have a bad affect on the marriage. There is less stress in this relationship than in a marriage.; What do you think the main reason for increasing divorce rates are? I think that divorce rates are increasing as couples rely on each other too much. Another reason is that women dont like to be in relationships were the household chores are not divided equally. It can also be because people change and grow apart.My second interview was with my Dad- Ramesh Age -43; Why do you think that women are choosing their careers instead of getting married? I think that women are choosing careers instead of marriage, as before women used to get married so that they could get financial support. But now that women are successful many dont feel the need to get married.; Do you think that cohabitation is better than getting married? And why? I think that cohabitation is not a good as marriage. With a marriage there are many advantages such as the support you get from one another, although cohabitating couples do support one another I feel that within a marriage there is more security; What do you think the main reason for increasing divorce rates are? I think that the main reasons for divorce is that when people get married they may not be aware of all of the responsibilities that come along with it. Some people may also change e.g. if someone has been married for 15years their partner may have changed and they end up growing apart. My third interview was with my Aunty Tara Kapadia; Why do you think that women are choosing their careers instead of getting married? I think that women are choosing their careers because there are more jobs available to women now. Women re also becoming very successful in the work place. Some women rat her wait until they have a good job and then they get married- which maybe at an older age.; Do you think that cohabitation is better than getting married? And why?I dont think that cohabitation is better than marriage; I think that when couples cohabitate they are giving themselves time to get to know each other. I also think that in the end most cohabiting couples do get married What do you think the main reason for increasing divorce rates are? I think that the main reason for increasing divorce rates is that couples arent willing to give it another chance. Because it is easy to get a divorce people see it as a an easy way out.My fourth interview was 28-year-old Hema Why do you think that women are choosing their careers instead of getting married? I think that the main reason that women are choosing their careers before their marriage is because they are afraid that they wont be able to go back to work again. They may be scared that when they become mothers that their whole life will change, and if they are successful at work they may feel that the marriage may put a strain on their work life. Do you think that cohabitation is better than getting married? And why? I think that cohabitation is good, as it gives the couple a good chance to find out what their partner is really like. It is a really good taste of married life. What do you think the main reason for increasing divorce rates are? I think that one of the main reasons that divorce is increasing is because women have high expectations of the marriage. Also there may be very little equality within the marriage.My fifth interview was with Dr Hamid Why do you think that women are choosing their careers instead of getting married? I dont think that women are choosing their careers before their marriage. I think that all women fell it is important to have both a career and a family. A career wont fully satisfies a person, it is important that they also have a good family life Do you think that cohabitati on is better than getting married? And why? I dont think that marriage is better than getting married. I think that people that cohabitate are just going through a phase. I think that cohabitating couples want to have children that is important that they get married What do you think the main reason for increasing divorce rates are? I think that one of the main reasons for divorce is a lack of communication. People dont say whats on their mind and so arguments are more likely to occur.From these interviews most of the people felt that cohabitation was just a temporary phase. Many of the women that I interviewed said that both a career and marriage is important. Although more women feel that it is better that they get married after they have a good stable job. In these interviews many different reasons were given for the rise in divorce rates. I think that the main reason the interviewees felt was for the rise in divorce was the lack of communication and that couples dont discuss an y problems they may have. Most of the reasons given for the increase in divorce rates were reasons that were proven correct by many sociologists.I think that the interviews went well, although I should have done interviews with an equal amount of women and men-, which means that some of the data I collected, could be biased in some way, as I interviewed 3 women and 2 men.Compared to questionnaires interviews are a lot better, they allow the researcher to get in-depth answers to questions. Whereas questionnaires, are mainly yes or no answers and are fairly simple to answer.Over my questionnaire went well. Although I did not get all of my questionnaires back, there was still enough information to draw a conclusion from.Most of the people I handed the questionnaire out to, understood the questions and answered them in a sensible way.From my results I can say that one of the main reasons for the increase in divorce rates is that Divorce is becoming easier legally 43%. Another reason tha t people thought is the cause is that people have high expectations of a marriage 30%.For next question 39% said that cohabitation is more popular than marriage.Also 36% said that most cohabiting couples get married.26% said that successful women are less likely to get married.I also noticed that for the question * instead of marriage couples cohabitate, why do you think this is? Most people said that many people feel that they dont need to get married to prove their love. Others said that people dont like to rush into things and prefer to take things slowly.I also noticed that in a few of my questions half of my sample agreed with the point and half disagreed. The three questions in which this happened was why do you think divorce rates are increasing? People are getting married at a young age? Should cohabiting couples have children? And finally in do you think that only religious people get married? I think that this shows that people werent entirely sure on their views on this point.Although these results arent that accurate as they are just views of a small sample of people, they do prove my hypothesis to be correct.MARRIAGE CAN WAIT- DAILY MAIL 20/07/01This article proves many of the sociologists reasons for the decrease in marriage correct. It also mentions that cohabitation is more popular than marriage. Being a newspaper article some of the data being used could have gone out of date quickly, and the information given could be biased as the newspaper could be writing the article to prove a point.Newspapers are a good source to use for the basic statistics; they give figures and facts to prove their point.IS MARRIAGE OUT OF DATE? SOCIAL TRENDS 25In the article that I found in a book, it states some of the reasons to why people dont want to get married at a young age anymore. E.g. it is out of date also in one of the tables it says that from 1971 to 1989 cohabitation rose from 7% to 48% this data found is extremely out of date which means that it is not reliable.Sociologists have found these things to be true. Chester said that cohabitation is becoming more popular but it is only a temporary phase. The articles that I found were fairly interesting and they do prove most of my hypothesis correct.I also found out that divorce is not the only reason that marriage rates are falling it is also due to peoples attitudes about marriage.WHY WERE NOT GETTING MARRIED ANY MOREE.g. in one of the articles that I found it said that they dont need a piece of paper to declare their love. The divorce rates do discourage people from getting married. In the article Why were not getting married any more it says that marriage doesnt keep people together look at the divorce rate in the newspaper article marriage can wait daily mail it also says that women are putting their careers before marriage- which is another reason sociologists give for the decrease of marriage rates. This article also proves that the changing role of the women has an affect on marriage rates. It also states that women are getting married but at a later age.To gain information on marriage and divorce rates I have also used Official statistics, this is information, which is produced by the government. Secondary data is not that important to sociologists but they use it to prove their theory right, or they use to secondary source of information and prove it to be wrong by doing their own research.From doing this piece of research on marriage and the different reasons that marriage rates are going down I conclude that, although marriage rates are going down cohabitation is becoming more popular. I can also conclude that some women do put their careers before their marriage-, which means that they are just getting married at an older age compared to a few years ago.Cohabitating is now seen as a good alternative to married life. Many people now prefer to cohabitate as they see it as a stress free relationship. Many people dont see the point in getting marri ed, after looking at the divorce rates in Briton they dont see the point in getting married any more if 1 in 10 marriages end in divorce. As through the law has become easier the number of divorces has dramatically increased. People can get divorced on the grounds of irretrievable breakdown on the marriage.Over the years womens roles have also changed and they are now just as successful as men. Women have become very successful in the work place meaning that many women are getting married at an older age. Many women dont want to get married, as they may become pregnant and then they may have to quit their jobs to look after the children.After giving out my questionnaire I came to the conclusion that religion has very little to do with marriage.In my hypothesis I stated that the main reasons that marriage rates are declining are Divorce Changes in womens rolesI think that after doing my questionnaire and interviews many people thought that these where the main causes of declining mar riage rates. Another reason that people thought affected marriage rates was cohabitation, people felt that more people were cohabiting than actually getting married as they felt cohabitation suited their life style more than marriage.After doing some research I came to the conclusion that marriage rates arent going down its just that people are waiting longer to get married compared to 10 years ago. I think that nowadays women like to have a good stable career before they get married. Robert Chester argues Mainly we seem to be witnessing a delay in the timing of marriage.Chester also says most people that cohabit get married eventually this statement was proven correct in my results were 36% said that most cohabiting couples do get married in the end. After doing some research I feel that religion has very little to do with marriage rates and divorce rates. Even though in my questionnaire 37% said that most people that divorce are non-religious.After doing my questionnaire I realise d that different people have different vies on marriage, divorce and cohabitation. I also think that although religion has an indirect affect on a persons view of things like marriage and divorce- it doesnt have a direct influence on their views.After doing all of my primary and secondary research I feel that my hypothesis has been proven correct.As a whole I feel that my course work went fairly well. Although some of the questionnaires werent returned, there was still a high response rate.I also think that my secondary research went well, there was a lot on marriage, divorce and cohabitation in sociological books and on the Internet. I also found some of my information from newspapers. With my interviews I would have liked to do an equal number of interviews with males and females, I could have also interviewed people from different ethnic backgrounds. But with the time I had available five interviews was all that I could have done. But I feel that the interviews that I did do went excellently.If I had more time I think that I would expand my research- I could do marriage rates within different ethnicities, or I could have done the divorce rates of different ethnic people.I think that by doing a pilot study questionnaire really helped as I could improve it. After doing the pilot study I changed my questionnaire so that I was more understandable. One of the changes that I made was that I numbered and lettered my questions, making it easier to fill out.